This is a first post, but I'm not going to spend time on introductions. Let's get down to some content, alright? I'll start off with something simple (most coders will probably find this obvious).
One of the big issues in functional programming is the issue of side effects. Particularly, functional programmers tend to distrust them. A pure functional language such as Haskell or Clean disallows side-effects entirely. And not without good reason. Side effects complicate code, especially when concurrency is involved, an issue that is becoming more and more important as processor manufacturers move toward multi-core processors.
In programming terms, "side effect" doesn't mean exactly the same thing as it does in normal speech or writing. When a doctor speaks of the "side effects" of a medicine, he is speaking merely of any unintended consequences of the medicine. But when a programmer speaks of side effects, he/she is talking about any effects other than the return of a value. Here's why that difference in definition is important:
int a, b;
a = b = 1;
The second line is valid C because of a trick with the operators. The assignment operator in C not only assigns its value to the target variable, but it also returns the value which it assigns. The intended effect is the assignment. The return is a side effect! Or at least it is in the medical sense of the term, "Side effect." To avoid confusion between the more colloquial usage and the programming usage, I'll refer to these unintended consequences as "secondary effects".
Secondary effects, like side effects, are bad language and/or API design. Let's take a look at why.
int factorial(int i)
if(i = 1) return 1;
return i * factorial(i - 1);
If you've ever programmed in an academic environment, you probably think you've written this C code before. Let's hope for the sake of your grades that you haven't; this code has a serious error. The condition for the if-statement contains an assignment operator rather than an equality test operator.
This code compiles and then fails silently at runtime. If the assignment operator in C didn't allow this secondary effect, this error could be caught at compile time. One of C's biggest benefits is its static type system, so one would expect that catching errors at compilation is something C programmers care about. Many later languages remove the return from the assignment operator precisely because of how common this error is.
Here is another example, a famous piece of code:
This piece of code famously copies the contents of string src into string dest (provided that enough space is allocated for dest). In addition to the confusion of the asterisk operator (which in different cases declares a pointer, indicates the value stored at a pointer, or multiplies its operators, a blatant violation of the Principle of Least Astonishment) there is the added confusion that the secondary effect (return) of the increment operator are being passed to the secondary effect of the assignment operator, which is being returned as the test value to the while test. Add to this the confusion that the increment operator can also be a prefix unary operator, like so:
I'll leave it to the reader to figure out the error caused by this change.
C programmers of course would not present the above line as an example of good code. However, situations as confusing do often turn up in production code, wreaking havoc on the junior developers that attempt to debug them.